Granular Activated Carbon (GAC)

Ancient Egyptian culture new the beneficial properties of charred coal for improving the quality of drinking water. Today's modern successor Granular Activated Carbon is a filter media that is extremely porous and highly adsorbent., and hence . Commercial activated carbon has a large external and internal surface area.

Granular activated carbon (granulated or extruded), particle size in the range of   0.50-4.00 mm

Activated carbon mainly consists of elementary carbon in graphite like structure. It can be produced by heat treatment, or “activation” of raw materials such as wood, coal, peat, coconut shell, bamboo and other plantation wood. During the activation process, the unique internal pore structure is created and it is this pore structure, which provides activated carbon its outstanding adsorptive properties.  

Activated Carbon: A Myriad of Applications

Activated carbon has hundreds of different applications. In fact, virtually every product manufactured today has been improved upon at least once by the use of activated carbon. In its numerous applications, activated carbon represents a number of different functionalities as hereunder :

Adsorption : the most well-known mechanism, through physical adsorption

Reduction: e.g. removal of chlorine from water is based on chemical reduction reactions

Catalysis: activated carbon can catalyze a number of chemical conversions, or can be a carrier of catalytic agents (e.g. precious metals)

Carrier of biomass: support material in biological filters
 

Typically, activated carbon requires a certain contact time, along with bed depth and surface of the filter to obtain maximum contaminant removal. For VOC volatile organic chemicals and chlorine and related toxic chemical removal the EPA considers GAC as the best available technology.

Further, a crucial consideration regarding granular activated carbon refers to possible regeneration, the Eliminator system does not require backwashing to flush out sediments and non hazardous contaminants that can foul the filter bed.

Granular Activated Carbons as Adsorbents of Hydrogen Sulfide

Activated carbons used to remove hydrogen sulfide odor.  Since the surface of activated carbons is very complicated from the point of view of chemistry and porous structure we are trying to define factors which enhance the adsorption of hydrogen sulfide and its oxidation to water soluble species that make GAC feasible.

Mechanism of  Adsorption on Activated Carbons

The process of hydrogen sulfide removal and the performance of various commercial activated carbons is effective as an odor adsorbents.  The surface of GAC increases the  performance for both odor and  volatile chemicals that maybe associated in the water systems.  

  

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